Neolithic life style seen in Central Anatolia in the historical process; probably to the end of the Pottery Neolithic (New Stone Age) period and the beginning of the Pottery Neolithic Period, BC 7000-6000 began to be seen in the Marmara Region. Archaeological data bearing the characteristics of this period can be seen in Fikirtepe (Fikirtepe, Temeyne, Tuzla) Phase. This culture, which is called Fikirtepe Culture and includes Tuzla Kalekapı settlement at that time, covers a period of 1000 years since 6000 BC.
The archaeological findings of the Neolithic Period found during the excavation of the foundations of the Tuzla Primary School around Kalekapı in 1958 yielded information on the oldest known history of Tuzla.
Archaeological research conducted in the garden of the same school in 1965 yielded spindle whorls and sherds from the same period. Handmade pottery; burnished, sand and mica added, inner lined, dark colored and some of them as camel hair. When the ceramic pieces are combined, wide-mouthed, necked, neckless, narrowing, rimmed, liped and flat bottomed vessels are obtained.
It is estimated that Kalekapı, which is a flat area, has no architectural style and that huts in the form of twigs are used as shelter. Looking at the animal bones in the settlement, Kalekapı residents have a feeding scheme defined as a “mixed economic” model. They intensively fishing, gathering mussels from coastal areas, hunting cattle and eating the meat of sheep and goats they domesticated; it is also understood that they eat heavily from the edible wild nuts in the surrounding area.
The First Known Residents of Tuzla
Although the first settlers of Tuzla and the region do not know exactly who they are, it is presumed to be Bebrikler belonging to the people of Firig between 1200-700 BC. For this reason, the northern part of the Sea of Marmara was called Bebrikya. Although the Kadıköy-Tuzla coastline is within the settlement area of Bebrikler, Bebrikler could not form a political unity in this area.4
The Cimmerians, who came to the region in the following years, eliminated Bebrikler. But the Cimmerians could not form a political unity in the region. Like Bebrikler, Bitinler, a tribe of Thracian descent, probably came from Europe in 650 BC, as they expelled the Cimmerians from the region and under the rule of Bebrikler, they established their kingdom in the region.5 Bithynes remained under the sovereignty of Persians for more than 200 years since 546-545 BC . As a result of the defeat of the Persians to Alexander the Great, Zipotes regained the independence of the Bithin and took the title of King. Thus, firstly political unity was established in the region. (BC, 297)
Before the period of the Ottoman Empire, Tuzla Burnu was called Akritas.
and Ptolemeos; Akritas is a name given only to the Tuzla Cape because it means the nose.
On the other hand, Jules Pargoire showed that Akritas is not only the most extreme point of the Tuzla Peninsula but also the whole of the Tuzla Peninsula.
In the said region, we do not know the exact date of establishment, but VI. century, the presence of a village called Akritas is known in the place of today's Tuzla.
XVIII. The village, which was named with this name until the 19th century, was named as Niğde, Yiğitli and Tuzla after the Ottoman Empire administration.10 Today, Tuzla name is used.
Roman and Byzantine Period
King of Bithynia IV. After Bitomia was left to Rome on the will of Nicomedes, Tuzla and its region was a part of Roman lands since 74 BC. After Rome was divided into East and West Rome in 395, Tuzla and its region remained under the rule of Eastern Rome for eleven centuries.
Later, the Eastern Roman Empire was called the Byzantine Empire. After the spread of Christianity in Anatolia, the monasteries of Andreas, Hagios Tryphon, Theotokos, Hagios Demetrias in Tuzla during the Byzantine Period; Değirmenaltı Church, Hagia Glikeria, Hagios Taxiarhis, Hagios Theodoros …… churches were built in the name of a large number of religious structures. Of these structures, only some parts of the Glikeria Church on the Fig Island (today's Koç Island) are preserved11.